Mulch Basics

Mulch Basics Mulch is any type of material that is spread or laid over the surface of the soil as a covering. It is used to:

• Retain moisture in the soil
• Suppress weeds
• Keep the soil cool
• Make the garden bed look more attracting
• Potentially improve the soil's fertility

Examples of organic mulches include:

• Bark, shredded or chipped
• Compost
• Composted manure
• Grass clippings
• Newspaper
• Schredded leaves
• Scraps

Organic mulch will decompose and have to be replaced, however in the process it will also improve your soil’s fertility and, of course, its organic content. The dryer and woodier the mulch, the slower it will decompose and the less nutrients it will give to the soil.

Organic Mulch Organic Mulches Evergreens, newly planted trees and woody plants need to be watered frequently during the fall (especially during a dry fall season). During a deep freeze (when the ground freezes) roots can no longer absorb moisture from the soil and become dependent on what they’ve stored in the fall. The primary cause of winter damage to evergreens is from dehydration. Evergreens don’t lose their foliage in the winter and will continue to transpire. If they haven’t stored sufficient water, they may suffer burning or browning of the foliage.

Bark mulches are best used around trees, shrubs, and in garden beds where you won’t be doing a lot of digging. These woody mulches don’t mix well into the soil and i t can become difficult to have to keep moving them aside to make way for new plants. They will last longer than finer organic mulches. Dyed wood mulch is made by grinding up old pallets and other trash wood, and may contain arsenic, creosote and other nasty stuff. It is the lowest quality mulch you can buy.

Rubber mulch is WORSE! Rubber mulch leaches zinc and other pollutants and it stinks in the summertime.

Compost and Composted Manure can be used anywhere, as long as they are relatively well composted and weed free. You can use them as a coating of mulch or simply side dress plants with them during the growing season, to insulate and give a boost of slow released nutrients.

Grass Clippings are a mixed bag and are best suited to remote areas of your garden where you basically want to suppress weeds. Grass clippings, like most green plant debris with a high water content, decompose very rapidly and in the process, they can get somewhat slimy, with an unpleasant odor - so use with discretion. Grass clippings also tend to mat down and not allow water to pass through.

Newspaper as mulch is becoming more and more popular. Most newspapers have switched over to organic dyes, especially for their black & white sections. Shredded newspaper has been used for years to keep plant roots moist while shipping. Layered sheets of newspaper also have great moisture retention abilities and they act like other organic mulches as far as suppressing weeds and controlling soil temperatures. They are also great for smothering existing grass, to jump start a new garden bed.

Leaf MulchShredded Leaves are nature’s favorite mulch. Shredded leaves can be used as mulch anywhere and have the added bonus of being free. You will also entice more earthworms to your garden soil. Some gardeners don’t like the look of leaves in their garden and they probably aren’t appropriate for formal gardens. But if you spread a layer in the spring, before plants spread out, the leaf mulch tends to blend into the view within a short time.

Unshredded leaves can mat together and repel water, in rainy areas. However if that happens, you can always rake and fluff them up a bit, if they appear to get matted.

Straw and Salt Hay are popular mulches for the vegetable garden. They keep the soil and soil diseases from splashing up on lower plant leaves and make paths less muddy. Straw decomposes very slowly and will last the entire growing season. It also makes a nice h ome for spiders and other beneficial insects who will move in and help keep the pest population in control. And finally, it’s easy to either rake up or work into the soil when it’s time to plant a new crop or put the vegetable garden to bed.

Applying Mulch

• Do not extend the mulch right up to your home. Subterranean termites are in your landscape and mulch makes a perfect home for them. Always leave at least a six-inch clear area around your home.

• • Avoid touching a plant with any mulch. Mulches are for preventing weeds and retaining soil moisture; they do NOT keep plants warm or comfort them. Any mulch that's piled up against a plant stem or tree trunk provides cover and traps moisture, inviting pests, disease and rot to destroy that poor plant. Always leave a few inches wide open around the trunk or stem.

• Dark-color mulches will absorb and retain more heat from the sun than light-color ones. This is an advantage in cooler regions but a disadvantage in hotter climates.

• Light-color mulches (particularly decorative landscaping types, such as white stones) reflect light and heat and can dangerously overheat surrounding plants.

• Use mulch to protect plants during the winter. You can do this by pruning certain plants back and covering them entirely with mulch. The mulch provides insulation. Don't forget to remove the mulch in spring.

Prepare The Area

• Pull weeds or cut them close to the ground, if you are mulching for weed control. While not strictly necessary, it will help the mulch, and anything under it, to lay flat, and it will slow down the weed growth. Remember, mulch prevents weed growth by excluding light.

• Enrich the soil and dig the beds, if you plan to do so. Biodegradable mulch can break down into rich, loose soil without this preparation, but it will take time.

• Lay down anything you want under the mulch, such as landscaping fabric or plastic. Try adding several layers of newspaper or cardboard (remove tape and labels first) if you'd like a biodegradable means of blocking weeds.

• Install any borders or edges.

• Aim for at least two to four inches (5-10cm) of depth.